The Imbrication of Patriarchy, Racism, and Transnationalism and the Ensuing Gender Relations in Selected GUMI L Hawaii Short Fiction circa 70s
The Gunglo Dagiti Mannurat iti Ilokano ti Hawaii (GUMIL Hawaii), acommunity-based association of Ilocano writers in Hawaii, dramatizes intheir writings the diasporic condition of Filipino immigrants, especially ofthe Ilocanos, in that foreign land. A particular topic these writers depict intheir works is the resulting marital and domestic conflict due to arrangedmarriages between young girls and much older male laborers. The authorhopes that by using a gender relations framework that is informed byan awareness of the intersection of patriarchy, transnational logic, andhistoricity, she can understand the gender issues at play in the storiesselected for this analysis. The article will thus argue that gender relationsbetween Fil-American men and women, particularly of the Ilocanos inHawaii, are predicated on the imbrication of patriarchy, classed racism,US immigration policies, the flow of transnational capital, and racist USeconomic demands.